Recently, my aunt was discussing this article from the online website Salon about how there are far more men than women getting their books published (in the traditional way).
I don’t know why but I read Salon every morning, even though the writing there (including the linked piece) tends to often be of substandard quality. If you’re looking to improve your English writing skills, avoid Salon! However what I want to address today is a very common inductive fallacy from the article:
The imbalance in books published [i.e. more male authors than female authors] is indeed a puzzle; book publishers, like any other business, want to make money.
Let’s assume the following facts are true:
- Publishing companies want to make money.
- Women and men are more or less inherently equally skilled at writing books (i.e. gender is not a factor).
- Well-written books sell better than poorly-written books.
- Therefore any publisher wanting to make money would publish (roughly) an equal number of books written by female authors as by male authors.
This certainly seems to make sense. And yet even if all of the above are true, there could easily be a bias in favor of male authors (as indeed seems to be the case).
Why? Because of the fallacy of game theory, the most famous proponent of which is John Nash, whom several of you may know from the film A Beautiful Mind.
Military and political strategists took (and often still DO take) game theory quite seriously. So do members of an equally important cohort – economists – with devastating results.
The fatal error here is what’s known as a “rational actor”. In the case of a publishing company, which certainly does want to make money, this would mean that they will always act “rationally”. If a good manuscript comes across their desk, they will eagerly sign a contract with the author and publish it regardless of the gender (or race, etc) of the author. After all, it seems a little silly to turn down money simply because of the genitalia (or skin color, etc) of the person who wrote it.
And yet it happens all the time. The most famous case is that of “JK” Rowling, the author of all those incredibly profitable Harry Potter books (and at least one of you knew her personally before she was famous!).
We all know her as “JK” Rowling instead of “Jo” or “Joanne” precisely because her publisher felt that people wouldn’t read her books if they knew she was a woman. Obviously that wasn’t the case as the woman is a billionaire and I’ve never once heard (even anecdotally) of anyone refusing to read the book because they knew it was written by a woman.
So the question we have before us is how could the publishers be so wrong? How could five or six of them reject her original manuscript if it was obviously so good (at least in terms of sales)? How could the one who finally decided to publish her be so wrong about people not reading her books if she used her obviously female name on the cover?
Again, this dovetails right into one of my hobbies – probability theory. Publishing companies certainly DO want to make money. And the way they do this is by looking over manuscripts and trying to predict which ones will be successful. If John Nash and economists and game theorists were right, the publishing companies would have some kind of rational algorithm that would allow them to more or less accurately (and impartially) assess manuscripts and predict which of them will sell well (and thus be profitable).
The problem is that there is no way to predict which books will sell well. Sometimes big-name authors with previously well-received books will write one that doesn’t sell well at all. Likewise, sometimes a book by an unknown person (such as Ms. Rowling) with very little expectation of success will write a blockbuster that makes billions of dollars.
The publishers really have no way of knowing what will happen. They try to cover it up with “experience in the field” and their “gut feelings” and “intuition” and “market research” and everything else but at the end of the day, it’s inherently unpredictable. It is a classic Black Swan problem.
What makes the situation even worse is that the (traditional) publishing world is not even close to being a “free market”. It’s dominated by a few huge companies that have their own institutionalized beliefs about “what sells” and how to market a book. They have incestuous ties to one another (and literary agents) and it is a relatively small industry. Just a few thousand people decide the fate of millions of books.
We’ll never know the masterpieces that were submitted and rejected by these publishers (written by female authors or male). We’ll never know of the great books that might be best sellers but were poorly promoted or marketed. All we see are the “winners” – the books that have sold well, and yes, most of them were written by men. Perhaps some of the books we’ve never read were rejected by these publishers due to sexism but it could equally just be because of the fact that while the publishers (and literary agents) act like they can recognize a good book and predict which ones will sell, in reality they can’t.
There is a solution to the particular case of publishing books and it’s called self-publishing, which I’ve written about extensively here.
If people who buy books (aka “readers”) could walk into a store (or browse online) and read samples of books for free and then buy them on demand, then the public would start winnowing out the true winners (aka talented writers) from the losers (untalented writers). Then a woman (or a person with a “foreign” name, etc) would have an equal opportunity to sell their books and perhaps even make a decent living to boot.
The method above would still be skewed in an absolute sense due to something called the power law (also known as the Fat Tail). If readers in my hypothetical “print on demand” bookstore could rate books then the earliest books to receive high ratings would then disproportionately continue to receive high ratings. But it would be a much fairer system, since there would be no intervening screen of publishers deciding FOR US what is and what is not quality writing (and thus worth publishing and marketing).
I’m sure that in the near future I will write an extended article about Romania’s economy because a lot of the same aspects come into play, albeit on a larger scale. To give you an example of what I’m referring to, let’s consider the following as true:
- People in the Romanian government (and Central Bank, etc) want Romania’s economy to grow.
- Choices on what money to borrow and where to invest it are based purely on what is good for the economy.
- Everything from the laws that are written to business regulation to tax codes are designed to maximize the profitability of businesses and society as a whole.
Even if – even if all of the above were true, there would still be catastrophic failures in policy implementation (i.e. unprofitable policies would be implemented). In other words, even if every politician and member of the government were a saint and pure-hearted and never, ever corrupt, greedy or stupid, they would still make gigantic mistakes due to “non-rational” choices that people make and Black Swans.
Understanding system complexity is regrettably something very few people expend their mental energy on. One notable exception is John Robb, who mostly talks about terrorists and the like, but a lot of what he says is equally applicable to the world of publishing books and the government of Romania making economic policy decisions.
Long story short, the smaller the group of people making decisions, the greater their error rate is going to be. This is why I often applaud corruption in Romania, not because it’s fair or good for people (and it certainly sucks when it happens to you) but because it’s actually mitigating the Black Swan errors in the ability to predict the future by the “good” members of the government and their economic policy decisions. Sometimes corruption actually blocks decisions made by “good” people which would end up being quite harmful.
To put it into publishing terms: imagine if a few hackers could log into the computers of major publishing houses and insert books they wrote (or their friends wrote) into the system and get them published and onto bookstore shelves. By random processes alone, a few of those “pirate” books would actually be written by talented authors and get recognized by the buying public and turn into bestsellers purely on their own merit.
Luckily for authors (and people who read books), the world of self-publishing is expanding. There have already been a few best sellers that were self-published, some of them from manuscripts rejected by the world of traditional publishing.
Every copy I sell of The Complete Insider’s Guide to Romania potentially means that one less copy of a traditional guidebook on Romania is sold. If things continue the way they are, and my book continues to get recognition (and continues to sell), then ultimately that will influence the traditional publishers directly as they’ll tell their guidebook authors to write something “like Sam’s book”, whatever that means.
Predicting the future is not just the domain of witches (taxed or not :P). It’s absolutely vital in some fields, whether publishing books or taking massive billion euro loans from the IMF in order to run Romania’s economy. Tragically it is however, largely misunderstood and quite often disastrously misapplied, even by people who DO have good intentions.